There are several types of kidney stones, including calcium stones, which are quite common and often caused by dehydration; cystine stones, which are caused by a genetic disorder; struvite stones, which are caused by infections in the urinary tract; and uric acid stones, which are often caused by dehydration and uric acid disorders.
Some common symptoms include pain in the back, below the ribs, or in the groin and lower abdomen. It can also be painful to urinate, and urine may look cloudy, red, or brown, and smell bad. If there is an infection, you may experience a fever.
There are several treatment options available – shock wave lithotripsy, laser lithotripsy and surgery.
Another treatment option is a procedure called ureteroscopy. During the procedure, Dr Maharajh uses a thin scope to locate and remove the stones without making any incisions in the skin. The scope is passed into the kidney through the bladder and ureter. In some cases, a laser is also used to break the stones up into smaller pieces if they are too big to remove.